Spinal Cord Diseases or Disorders
- 1. Arachnoiditis
- 2. Arterial-venous Malformation
- 3. Brown-Sequard Syndrome
- 4. Cauda Equina Syndrome
- 5. Cerebral Palsy
- 6. Central Cord Syndrome
- 7. Guillian-Barre Syndrome
- 8. Back and spine conditions/disorders (see Health & Wellness)
- 9. Multiple sclerosis
- 10. Polio/post Polio
- 11. Spinal Cord Tumor
- 12. Spina Bifida
- 13. Spinal Stenosis
- 14. Stroke/spinal
- 15. Syringomyelia
- 16. Transverse Myelitis
1.1. Arachnoiditis information sheets and on-line support
Circle of Friends with Arachnoiditis
An online support group site for those who suffer from or know someone with arachnoiditis. COFWA trys to provide education, friendship, caring, sharing, and insights and assist with questions about arachnoiditis.
2. Arterial-venous Malformation
2.1. Arteriovenous Malformation information sheet
Arteriovenious Malformation information page from NINDS
Arteriovenous information and treatment at Cleveland Clinic
3. Brown-Sequard Syndrome
3.1. Brown-Sequard information
3.2 NORD (National Organization for Rare Disorders) Brown-Sequard Patient Information Sheet
3.2. Brown-Sequard articles
4. Cauda Equina Syndrome
4.1. Cauda Equina Syndrome Fact Sheet
A Cauda Equina Syndrome Fact Sheet produced by the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons.
5. Cerebral Palsy
5.1. Cerebral Palsy Symptons
Contact by email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Our mission at CerebralPalsySymptoms.com is to provide the public with accurate and up to date information on the many aspects of cerebral palsy and other birth injury complications. Our team strives to maintain a comprehensive free resource so those interested or concerned about their children can take actions to protect them. If you would like to get in touch with our team we can be reached at email@example.com
No parent wants to think about the possibility of their child having cerebral palsy. This injury, which occurs during or just prior to birth, affects the brain causing everyday challenges for those afflicted. Affecting the brain also means that there are numerous types of cerebral palsy, each with their own unique symptoms. Doctors have a hard time understanding everything about this disability because there are so many variations of cerebral palsy. For a more in-depth explanation of the various versions children suffer from, continue reading.
Ataxic Cerebral Palsy
This form is considered the rarest version of the disability and the least-diagnosed. Ataxic cerebral palsy has an effect only on a child's precise motor skills. Symptoms will manifest themselves in minor ways like challenges with balance and a speech impediment because of issues in the inner ear. Minute tasks like buttoning up a shirt or tying shoelaces will also be difficult and may bring about tremors when the child becomes frustrated.
Athetoid Cerebral Palsy
Athetoid cerebral palsy is the most widespread type. Unfortunately, this version suppresses a child's ability to intellectually express themselves, which means they can feel trapped inside their own body.
Choreoathetoid Cerebral Palsy
Choreoathetoid cerebral palsy is much like the athetoid cerebral palsy, except that it also involves involuntary twitching.
Diplegic Cerebral Palsy
You may hear this type of cerebral palsy called Little's Disease or spastic diplegia. This was the first version to ever be diagnosed and given a name. Children with diplegic cerebral palsy are afflicted with muscle spasticity and tense muscles, but only in their lower body. In some cases, children's legs actually cross over one another at the knees involuntarily, making walking very challenging.
Dyskinetic Cerebral Palsy
An injury to the brain that originates from a hypoxic-ischemic injury or bilirubin encephalopathy can cause what is known as dyskinetic cerebral palsy. It is also a name sometimes used to describe athetoid cerebral palsy.
Dystonic Cerebral Palsy
Dystonic cerebral palsy is characterized by abnormal muscular movements that are usually either spastic or extremely sluggish. Writhing movements are common as well. As a result, children with dystonic cerebral palsy have muscles that can be tight or floppy.
Epidural Hematoma Cerebral Palsy
Most cerebral palsy types get their names from the symptoms they cause. However, with epidural hematoma cerebral palsy, its name actually stems from how the child got the disorder. This version is the result of a stroke, usually suffered by the child during the birthing process.
Grade 1 IHV Cerebral Palsy
Grade 1 IHV cerebral palsy is generally a very mild form. Most children who suffer from it will recover after some developmental challenges, so long as they undergo various forms of physical therapy.
Hypertonic or Hypotonic Cerebral Palsy
The symptoms that accompany this kind of cerebral palsy appear early on, making it easy to diagnose. Babies with hypertonic or hypotonic cerebral palsy are sometimes compared to rag dolls. They do not stiffen when their limbs are moved or they are picked up.
Hemiparetic or Hemiphlegic Cerebral Palsy
Strokes can also cause hemiparetic cerebral palsy, which only affects the left or right side of the child's body. On the affected side, they will suffer from either muscle spasticity or stiffness. Generally, the arm and hand are affected or the child's leg, but not both. Speech problems may be experienced too. Children who have this version are also more vulnerable to seizures.
Non-spastic (Extrapyramidial) Cerebral Palsy
While the muscles do not involuntarily contract or twist with this form of axatic cerebral palsy, speech problems, motor skill challenge and respiratory issues are still present.
Periventricular Leukomalacia Cerebral Palsy
Children with this version of cerebral palsy may have some difficulties with their muscles, but it mainly affects their brain. They are more likely to experience seizures than with other forms and may develop epilepsy.
A child that has spastic quadriplegia will lack control of their limbs. Developmental milestones, therefore, will take a lot longer to reach. Sadly, the path to these developmental markers may also be quite painful.
Subdural Hematoma Cerebral Palsy
This version is believed to result from trauma to the head, like in the case of a baby being dropped. When this happens, the minute veins below the dura and above the skull stretch and even tear. Blood collects and the brain suffers sustained injuries.
These are the main forms of cerebral palsy. If you think your infant shows signs of any of them, be sure to see a doctor as soon as you can.
5.2. Cerebral Palsy Guidance
Cerebral Palsy Guidance was created to provide answers and assistance to parents of a child with cerebral palsy. Our goal is to reach as many members of the cerebral palsy community as possible, building up a network of support, as well as providing necessary assistance.
We cover cerebral palsy from all angles–from symptoms, causes, and treatment, to daily living information, such as communication and transitioning to adulthood articles.
Our information is provided by expert writers and is thoroughly researched and cited.
Cerebral Palsy Group is an online resource for anyone who has been affected by cerebral palsy, brain injuries, or birth injuries.
Cerebral Palsy Group is a national organization that was created so that it may serve the individuals and families
who have been diagnosed with cerebral palsy. We are here to provide information and support so that we may help provide
resources and education to those affected by CP.
The Cerebral Palsy Group Mission
We work tirelessly so that we may develop and create a website that is both informative and easy to use. It is our hope
that we can provide any and all help that is needed for the parents of children with CP.
Who We Serve
You. We are here to serve you and your family.
We provide you with the most up-to-date information and resources that are currently available. What you find on and
throughout our website has been thoroughly researched through a multitude of outlets and processes.
They include medical journals, medical literature, trusted medical websites and peer-reviewed articles. All of this
information is researched and then goes through a rigorous development process through our content team.
Our hope is that by consolidating this information in one place, we are able to provide parents and caregivers with
information or help they are looking for, so that they have a better understanding of cerebral palsy along with factors
to consider when raising a child.
5.3. Cerebral Palsy Group
Cerebral Palsy Group is a national organization that was created so that it may serve the individuals and families who have been diagnosed with cerebral palsy. We are here to provide information and support so that we may help provide resources and education to those affected by CP.
6. Central Cord Syndrome
6.1. Central Cord Syndrome information
Central Cord Syndrome information page from NINDS
6.2. Info from AANS
Information from the American Association of Neurological Surgeons
7. Guillian-Barre Syndrome
7.1. Guillian-Barre Syndrome
Guillian-Barre Snydrome information page from NINDS
8. Back and spine conditions/disorders (see Health & Wellness)
9. Multiple sclerosis
9.1. Economics of Living with Multiple Sclerosis
9.2. Alternative Medicine and MS
Alternative Medicine and MS (See preview) is a single source for accurate and unbiased information on the many complementary and alternative medicines that can help manage some MS symptoms and promote general health. Readers will be able to: * find unconventional options for therapy; * learn of potentially dangerous interactions between alternative therapies and medical treatments; * identify therapies that are effective, low risk, and inexpensive; * recognize ineffective, dangerous, or costly alternative therapies. A section on Integrating Conventional and Unconventional Medicine links specific symptoms to potentially useful alternative therapies: If readers have, for example, spasticity or bladder problems,
9.3. Multiple sclerosis information sheets and organizations
Multiple sclerosis information page from NINDS
National MS Society
Help each person address the challenges of living with MS through our 50-state network of chapters. The Society helps people affected by MS by funding cutting-edge research, driving change through advocacy, facilitating professional education, and providing programs and services that help people with MS and their families move their lives forward.
Multiple Sclerosis Foundation
Resources assist people who have MS, their families and caregivers, regional support groups, and healthcare professionals. Access to our programs and services is available through our interactive web site or our national, toll-free helpline staffed by caring caseworkers and peer counselors. Our priority is to serve with empathy, resourcefulness and responsibility. All MSF services, as well as information, literature and subscriptions to our publications are provided free of charge. Provides peer counseling, assistive technology program, homecare and computer grants.
Multiple Sclerosis Association of America
MSAA offers a variety of programs and services in all 50 states: Helpline consultations, equipment distribution, MRI diagnostic funding, resource assistance, and public awareness campaigns. MSAA also provides valuable information on the disease and symptom management through its award-winning literature and educational videos.
9.4. MS and spasticity
Multiple Sclerosis-Related Specificity: Answers for You and Your Loved Ones (download attached document)
This brochure was developed specifically for people living with multiple sclerosis —and their loved ones—who want to learn more about spasticity. Questions and issues covered in this helpful and informative brochure include:
- What is spasticity?
- How do I know I have spasticity?
- Will I develop spasticity?
- Spasticity can cause different types of problems
- Why is detection of spasticity important?
- What should I do if I think I may have spasticity?
- How can I prepare for a discussion about spasticity treatment with my specialist?
9.5. MSQR Publication Shift
MSQR 30.1 is the final issue of this publication. Subscriptions will no longer available.
Please note that NARCOMS will continue to send out a quarterly report to all of its Registry participants. If you are a member of NARCOMS and have a change of address, please contact them at 1-800-253-7884.
Although MSQR is no longer in production, United Spinal will soon be providing our readers and members even greater online access to the latest MS news and information later this year.
If you would like to be notified when the web site launches, simply join United Spinal or National Spinal Cord Injury Association and enter your e-mail address (current members with an e-mail address on file will automatically be notified).
9.6. MS and Vitamin D
Healthline has an interactive tool that shows the correlation between sun exposure, vitamin D, and MS rates.
9.7. MS Coalition-Disease Modifying Therapy
Please see the attached MS Coalition Disease Modifying Therapy paper. And, visit MS Coalition for more details.
3 University Plaza Drive, Suite 116
Hackensack, NJ 07601
Fax: (862) 772-7275
The National MS Society and the other member organizations of the MS Coalition have collaborated to produce a consensus document to summarize current evidence about disease modification and provide support for broad access to FDA-approved DMTs. This evidence-based document may be useful when addressing insurance questions (preauthorization, formulary, etc.); a companion piece for general audiences is currently under development.
Initiation of treatment with an FDA-approved DMT is recommended:
- As soon as possible following a diagnosis of relapsing MS
- For individuals with a first clinical event and MRI features consistent with MS, where other possible causes have been excluded
- For individuals with secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis who continue to demonstrate clinical relapses and/or demonstrate inflammatory changes
Treatment with any given DMT should be continued indefinitely unless any of the following occur:
- Sub-optimal treatment response as determined by the individual and the clinician
- Intolerable side effects or inadequate adherence
- Availability of a more appropriate treatment
The factors affecting choice of treatment are complex and most appropriately addressed by the individual in collaboration with the treating clinician. Movement from one DMT to another should occur only for medically appropriate reasons.
Due to significant variability in the MS population, people with MS and their clinicians require full access to a range of treatment options:
- Different mechanisms of action allow for treatment change in the event of sub-optimal response.
- Potential contraindications limit options for some individuals
- Risk tolerance varies among people with MS and their clinicians
- Route of delivery and side effects may affect adherence
- Individual differences related to tolerability and adherence may necessitate access to different medications within the same class
Access to treatment should not be limited by the patient's frequency of relapses, level of disability, age, gender or ethnicity. Absence of relapses while on treatment should not be considered a justification for discontinuation of treatment. Treatment should not be discontinued to allow for determination of coverage by payers.
10. Polio/post Polio
11. Spinal Cord Tumor
11.1. Spinal Cord Tumor-General Information & Support
NINDS diagnosis, treatment and research information for Spinal Cord Tumors
Mayo Clinic diagnosis, treatment and research
Spinal Cord Tumor Association (SCTA) is a caring community on the web, established by people just like you, who have been given the overwhelming diagnosis of a spinal cord tumor. You, and those close to you undoubtedly have many questions. SCTA is a not-for-profit organization formed by spinal cord tumor survivors for the purpose of supporting survivors and their families.
12. Spina Bifida
12.1. Intro to Spina Bifida
Spina Bifida, the most common neural tube defect (NTD), is one of the most devastating of all birth defects. It results from the failure of the spine to close properly during the first month of pregnancy. In severe cases, the spinal cord protrudes through the back and may be covered by skin and a thin membrane. Surgery to close a newborn's back is generally performed within 24 hours after birth to minimize the risk of infection and to preserve existing function in the spinal cord.
Because of the paralysis resulting from the damage to the spinal cord, people born with spina bifida may need surgeries and other extensive medical care. The condition can also cause bowel and bladder complications. A large percentage of children born with spina bifida also have hydrocephalus, the accumulation of fluid in the brain. Hydrocephalus is controlled by a surgical procedure called "shunting" which relieves the fluid build up in the brain by redirecting it into the abdominal area.
Types of Spina Bifida:
- Spina Bifida Occulta: This is a mild form of spina bifida which is very common. Estimates vary but between 5% and 10% of people may have spina bifida occulta. There is an opening in one or more of the vertebrae (bones) of the spinal column without apparent damage to the spinal cord.
- Meningocele: The meninges, or protective covering around the spinal cord, has pushed out through the opening in the vertebrae in a sac called the "meningocele". However, the spinal cord remains intact. This form can be repaired with little or no damage to the nerve pathways.
- Myelomeningocele: This is the most severe form of spina bifida in which a portion of the spinal cord itself protrudes through the back. In some cases, sacs are covered with skin; in others, tissue and nerves are exposed.
Preventing Spina Bifida:
Recent studies have shown that one factor that increases the risk of having and NTD baby is the low folic acid (a common water-soluble B vitamin, essential for the functioning of the human body) status before conception and during the first few weeks of pregnancy. If women consume 0.4 mg of folic acid prior to becoming pregnant and during the first trimester of pregnancy, the incidence of folic acid preventing spina bifida can be reduced by up to 75%.
Children with spina bifida need to learn mobility skills, and often with the use of crutches, braces, or wheelchairs can achieve more independence. Also, with new techniques children can become independent in managing their bowel and bladder problems. Physical disabilities like spina bifida can have profound effects on the child's emotional and social development. It is important that healthcare professionals, teachers, and parents understand the child's physical capabilities and limitations. To promote personal growth, they should encourage children to be independent, to participate in activities with their non-disabled peers and to assume responsibility for their own care.
12.2. Spina Bifida resources
Spina Bifida information page from NINDS
12.3. Spina Bifida-A Personal Perspective
By Kelly Rouba
Jennifer Biggers (left) and Amy Saffell both have the same type of spina bifida, but every person's condition is unique.
I first met Karen Palazzini in freshman year of high school. Although one might guess that our similar situations bonded us together, having a disability was something we rarely discussed. Instead, it was the countless chocolate desserts and sappy chick flicks-not her struggle with spina bifida or my battle with arthritis- that paved the way to friendship.
So, it wasn't until I took on this assignment that I finally asked Karen to share with me exactly what it means to have spina bifida. Now, 13 years later, I finally have the answer.
Spina Bifida-the Basics
To put it simply, "Spina bifida is a birth defect," Karen told me during a recent girls' night out. From there, things get a bit more complicated.
Spina bifida takes three forms-occulta, meningocele, and myelomeningocele. In each case, "the spinal cord in the fetus develops within the first 28 days of pregnancy," says Amanda Darnley, director of Communications and Marketing for the Spina Bifida Association, "Spina bifida occurs when the spine fails to close."
Occulta, the least severe of the forms, is the result of a small defect or gap in several vertebrae. Occulta is often referred to as the "hidden spina bifida" because motor or sensory impairments are not evident at birth. In most cases, there are no symptoms, however neurologic deterioration can develop later in life.
The second type, meningocele, means that the meninges (or membranes that cover the central nervous system) are protruding from a hole in the spinal cord. Although the nerves usually aren't damaged, individuals may suffer minor health problems.
Myelomeningocele is the most severe of the three and means that individuals have a hole (or lesion) in their spinal cord where the nerves don't connect. If the lesion is lower on the spinal cord, it usually means the person will have a less severe case of spina bifida.
"[Myelomeningocele] usually results in some sort of paralysis in the legs and it is common to see some sort of bowel and bladder control difficulties," Darnley said, adding, "With the bladder issues, people often end up having to catheterize, which can result in urinary tract infections."
Additionally, up to 90% of children who have myelomeningocele will experience hydrocephalus, which occurs when cerebrospinal fl uid builds up inside the head. "So [doctors] insert a shunt and it drains the fluid off the brain. The shunt is something [patients] will monitor their entire lives," Darnley said.
Amy Saffell, another friend of mine who was also born with spina bifida and relies on a wheelchair for mobility, pointed out that having spina bifida is not like having a typical spinal cord injury.
"Although the paralysis may be the same," Amy told me, "one big difference is that our body grows up knowing how to compensate. Many people with spinal cord injuries have bad muscle spasms and take lots of medicine to regulate their body since it has to operate totally differently from when they were able bodied. With spina bifida, we don't really have to do that because our body is totally used to being paralyzed; it's always been that way."
<strong>The Personal Side of Spina Bifida </strong>
"Spina bifida occurs in seven out of every 10,000 live births in the United States. And no two cases of spina bifida are ever the same. Every case is unique," Darnley says.
Karen has myelomeningocele, but her situation is not quite as severe as Amy's or another friend Jennifer Biggers. Now 23 years old, Jennifer has relied on a wheelchair for much of her life.
"I got my first wheelchair when I was four; it was right before preschool," Jennifer said. "Until then, I was carried everywhere. I also used braces when I was younger, mainly for exercise, but it was tiring because I don't have any muscle strength to hold me up."
Studies suggest a correlation between folic acid intake in a mother's diet and the incidence of spina bifida in her offspring. Doctors advise women of child-bearing age to eat diets rich in folic acid.
"Most children with spina bifida will have multiple surgeries throughout their childhood," Darnley says. "There are lots of different surgeries that are done."
Over the years, Karen has had about 10 operations. "My first surgery was when I was two months old and doctors basically operated to stabilize my spinal cord," she said. "Another time, I had a pin put in my hip to try to stabilize that joint. Because of the spina bifida, there was nerve damage in my right leg and the joints and bones didn't form right."
Jennifer's first surgery took place soon after she was born. "I had a hole in my back so I had to get that sewn up," she said. Later on, doctors "put a shunt in [my head], but it never worked and I never needed it. I guess it was a precautionary thing. It ended up swelling, so they took it out. I also have rods in my back now because I had scoliosis when I was younger."
Is There a Cure?
To date, the exact cause of spina bifida is still unknown. "Many things can affect a baby, from family genes to things a woman may have come in contact with during pregnancy," Darnley said.
There is also no cure for spina bifida. However, doctors are now experimenting with an in-utero surgery that might help babies who have the defect, Karen said. In the study, doctors are looking at the benefits of closing the lesion before the baby is born. Typically, doctors will operate after the baby is born.
It has also been found that the B-vitamin folic acid can be used as a preventative measure against spina bifida. According to Darnley, there was a signifi cant decrease in the number of cases of spina bifida when manufacturers started fortifying cereals and fl our by putting folic acid in them. "But, we still see a high level of occurrence (of spina bifida) in the Hispanic population," she noted.
"A lot of doctors say spina bifida results because of the lack of folic acid in the mother, but honestly it could just happen. My mother was healthy and taking everything she was supposed to," Jennifer added.
But, Darnley still advises, "Anyone who is of a child-bearing age should be taking a daily multivitamin. A normal woman should take 400 micrograms of folic acid each day, and those who have had a previously affected pregnancy, a doctor will put them on a prescription of a higher dose."
13. Spinal Stenosis
13.1. Spinal Stenosis causes, diagnosis and treatment
Spinalstenosis.org treatment, tests etc
14.1. Spinal stroke
NINDS spinal cord stroke/infarction information page
15.1. Syringomyelia information page and on-line support
ASAP works to educate and inform the public and health professionals on Chiari (CM), syringomyelia (SM) and related disorders. ASAP provides support in a variety of ways including helping people locate support groups in their area, organizing virtual support groups, offering networking opportunities including a message board, listserv and chat room.
Syringomyelia is an uncommon but disabling complication of SCI. Although more than half of all people with SCI develop a cyst in the spinal cord at the injury site, only about 4% develop syringomyelia, in which the cyst fills with fluid and expands.
Syringomyelia Factsheet/NINDS , The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, provides factual, accurate information on this disorder.
Siringomielia (en espanol)
15.2. Chiari Malformation-basic information from NINDS
Chiari Malformation-basic information from NINDS